By Freud, Sigmund; Freud, Sigmund; Grünbaum, Adolf
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Extra info for The foundations of psychoanalysis : a philosophical critique
1955, 2: xvi)—the translator and editor of the Standard Edition of Freud's works—and Kurt Eissler (1969: 461) have hailed free association as an instrument comparable to the microscope and telescope. For reasons set forth in detail in chapters 3-10 below, 1 do not share this epistemic valuation at all. But if psychoanalysis does have the formidable cognitive virtues that Habermas claimed for it—a depf/i-hermeneutic enterprise that can even serve normatively as a model for the humanistic sciences—then surely the depth with which he credits it depends on the method of free association.
One cycle of magnetization and demagnetization can now be completed by a further decrease and then increase of H until the saturation state of B is reached again. But, very significantly, after one such complete cycle, the dependence of the behavior of the sample on its magnetization history further makes itself felt as follows: After the first cycle is depicted graphically by plotting B against H, the closed curve ("hysteresis loop") representing that initial cycle will never be retraced by subsequent cycles of demagnetization and remagnetization (Efron 1967: 694).
There are other instructive cases of context-dependence of laws of physics that reveal further the poverty of Habermas's supposed paradigmatic example of "'this stone' is considered, for example, as 'mass'" (1971: 265). This class of cases exhibits "hysteresis" in the sense that a property of a physical system, induced by a given present influence upon it, depends not only on that present influence but also on the past history of variation of that influence. Thus, "hysteresis" has been defined quite generally as "that property of an element evidenced by the dependence of the value of the output, for a given excursion of the input, upon the history of prior excursions and the direction of the current traverse" Critique of Habermas's Philosophy of Psychoanalysis 19 (Considine 1976: 1335).
The foundations of psychoanalysis : a philosophical critique by Freud, Sigmund; Freud, Sigmund; Grünbaum, Adolf