By John R. Fisher, Allan J. Kuethe, Anthony McFarlane
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Extra info for Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru
Yet the innumerable delays and resulting losses, even during the latter years, were at least as much the result of royal indecision as ofthe shortcomings of the reform expedition itself. D’Elhif1yar perhaps never really had a fair chance to succeed. His legal difficulties posed a ﬁnal, fatal complication. In his absence, the mining reform drifted hopelessly, and Ezpeleta had little practical choice but to terminate it. jUAN MARCHENA FERNANDEZ Chapter 3 The Social World of the Military in Peru and New Granada: The Colonial Oligarchies in Conﬂict, 1 750- 1 8 10 <><><> Between 1750 and 1810, a complex interplay of internal and external forces reshaped the Spanish colonial system.
Such forces as the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, the French Revolution, the slow death of the Spanish mercantilist system, and the growth of the colonial economy contributed to a fundamental transformation of Spanish America. In this process, the elites played a role of unquestionable importance. During the ﬁnal decades of the eighteenth century, the elites were the main catalyst in the social and economic processes that led to the destruction of the Spanish colonial system and the establishment of the new republics in the early nineteenth century.
Although I have researched these issues for some years, my conclusions cannot be carried too far at this point owing to a host of complicating variables? The local American oligarchies functioned within the same general framework, but were sufficiently diverse to justify an inﬁnite number of studies. Moreover, one must distinguish between urban and rural elites while remember- ing that their attitudes, whether progressive or conservative, were often subject to change and ill-deﬁned. Further, the differences between merchant oligarchs and land-own-ing oligarchs must be treated cautiously, because the aspirations of these groups, as expressed by behavior and attitudes, often overlapped.
Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru by John R. Fisher, Allan J. Kuethe, Anthony McFarlane