By National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Thor Hogan

ISBN-10: 0160831571

ISBN-13: 9780160831577

At the twentieth anniversary of the 1st human touchdown at the Moon, President George H.W. Bush stood atop the stairs of the nationwide Air and area Museum in Washington, D.C. and proposed a long-range human exploration plan that integrated the winning development of an orbital area station, an everlasting go back to the Moon, and a challenge to Mars. This firm grew to become often called the distance Exploration Initiative (SEI). The president charged the newly reestablished nationwide area Council with supplying concrete choices for assembly those targets. to supply total concentration for the hot initiative, Bush later set a thirty-year aim for a crewed touchdown on Mars. inside a number of brief years after this Kennedyesque declaration, even if, the initiative had pale into historythe sufferer of a improper coverage technique and a political warfare fought on numerous various fronts. the tale of this failed initiative was once a story of organizational, cultural, and private war of words by means of key protagonists and demanding battles. a few commentators have argued that SEI used to be doomed to fail, due essentially to the substantial budgetary pressures dealing with the country throughout the early Nineteen Nineties. The crucial thesis of Mars Wars: the increase and Fall of the distance Exploration Initiative indicates, in spite of the fact that, that failure was once now not predetermined. as a substitute, it was once the results of a deeply incorrect decision-making approach that didn't strengthen (or even think of) coverage suggestions which can were politically appropriate given the present political setting.

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61 Martin interview. 57 Ibid. 62 O’Handley interview. 58 O’Handley interview. 63 Martin interview. 63 Chapter 3: Bush, Quayle, and SEI Mars Wars Over the course of several weeks, Truly, Martin, Craig, and Darrell Branscome worked to refine the NASA proposal. They developed three different options for President Bush to consider: • • • Lunar Outpost, then to Mars (NASA’s recommended approach) – First crewed lunar landing in 2001 (crew of four, 30-day surface stay) – Expansion to 8 crew capacity by 2005 – Expansion to 12 crew capacity by 2009 (1-year surface stay) – First crewed Martian landing in 2016 Direct to Mars – First crewed Martian landing in 2008 (crew of four, 30-day surface stay) – Expansion to 8 crew capacity by 2014 – Expansion to 12 crew capacity by 2018 (180-day surface stay) Robots Only Due to the fact they could not expect any funding in FY 1990, the agency slipped the deadlines one year—so the Moon landing would not occur until 2001.

Darman forwarded the memorandum to President Bush recommending an allocation of $181,000, which would allow the Space Council to begin operations in fiscal year 1989. [Letter with an attached draft Executive Order, Diane Weinstein to Richard Darman, 15 March 1989, Bush Presidential Records, George Bush Presidential Library; Memorandum, J. Bonnie Newman to Richard G. Darman, 22 March 1989, Bush Presidential Records, George Bush Presidential Library; Memorandum, Richard G. edu/papers/ (accessed 18 May 2002).

We must have a manned Space Station; a vigorous safe Space Shuttle program; and more commercial development in space. 17 A week after his state of the union address, Bush received a congratulatory letter from Republican Senator Jake Garn of Utah. In April 1985, Garn flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery as the first public official to travel in space. A former Navy pilot and Brigadier General in the Utah Air National Guard, he served as a payload specialist on STS 51-D. Garn, a member of the Senate Appropriations Committee, applauded the president’s emphasis on federal investments in science and technology as crucial to the nation’s economic vitality and future.

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Mars Wars The Rise and Fall of the Space Exploration Initiative by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Thor Hogan

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