By Kai Licha (auth.), Prof. Dr. Werner Krause (eds.)
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Extra resources for Contrast Agents II: Optical, Ultrasound, X-Ray and Radiopharmaceutical Imaging
52 52 54 55 56 57 59 . . . 59 . . . 60 . . . 61 . . . 61 . . . . . . . . . 64 5 Conclusions and Future Direction 6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Abbreviations CBT CT DMSA DMX DOTA DTPA EDTA FITC GEC Caffeine breath test Computed tomography Dimercaptosuccinic acid Dimethylxanthine Cyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraazaacetic acid Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid Fluorescein isothiocyanide Galactose elimination capacity Dynamic and Continuous Monitoring of Renal and Hepatic Functions with Exogenous Markers GFR HAMC ICG MAMC MEGX MMX MRI NIRS OIH PAH PET SPECT TMX 33 Glomerular filtration rate 7-hydroxy-4-(aminomethyl)coumarin Indocyanine green 7-Methoxy-4-(aminomethyl)coumarin monoethylglycinexylidine Monomethylxanthine Magnetic resonance imaging Near infrared spectroscopy o-Iodohippuric acid p-Amino hippuric acid Positron emission tomography Single photon computed tomography Trimethylxanthine 1 Introduction This chapter reviews advances in the use of exogenous organ function-specific tracers for dynamic and continuous monitoring of renal and hepatic functions.
B. Dorshow activity within the test period, and hence may go unnoticed. Under such clinical conditions, continuous organ function monitoring is preferred. Continuous monitoring of organ function displays in real-time the clearance profile or concentration of an organ function-specific marker in a pre-determined body compartment. This approach allows the early intervention by clinicians since instantaneous deviation from the established baseline reading may indicate the onset of an anomaly. However, it may not be useful for measuring dynamic functional reserve of the organ because subsequent activities after marker elimination from plasma may not be reflected in the clearance profile.
A recent report suggests that the diagnostic capability of breath tests may be enhanced when multiple substrates are administered to patients . Other studies have quantified aminopyrine metabolites in biological fluids and demonstrated the reliability of this approach [30, 85], especially when maintenance of endogenous CO2 production or breath sample collection is difficult . The structural feature of aminopyrine is similar to antipyrine except that aminopyrine has a substituent (dimethylamino group) at the C-4 position (Fig.
Contrast Agents II: Optical, Ultrasound, X-Ray and Radiopharmaceutical Imaging by Kai Licha (auth.), Prof. Dr. Werner Krause (eds.)