By L Fishbein
Chemical Mutagens: Environmental results on organic platforms brings jointly appropriate proof approximately artificial and of course happening mutagenic chemical compounds.
Organized into components, this ebook starts with an easy dialogue at the glossy techniques of the gene on the molecular and biochemical degrees. the 1st half additionally appears into the different sorts of mutations and the way they shape, in addition to the organic structures used for his or her detection. the second one half offers with the person chemical mutagens of environmental value, together with their manufacture, prevalence, approach to detection, degradation, and metabolism. It additionally discusses the kinds of mutation chemical mutagens set off within the numerous try out structures which have been applied.
This booklet will function unmarried resource fabric for its software to scholars, investigators, and people concerned with public healthiness.
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Extra info for Chemical Mutagens: Environmental Effects on Biological Systems
Since the addition of ethidium molecules to D N A reduces its buoyant density in accordance with the number of ethidium molecules added, linear D N A is made lighter than the closed circles which cannot be as extensively intercalated. This forms the basis by which circular D N A is isolated from mixtures of circular and linear forms. By this method, the mitochondrial D N A of mammalian cells (which is circular) can be isolated directly from preparations of total cellular D N A . This technique has led to the discovery of varying size circles of mitochondrial D N A (called oligomers) as well as the group of interlocked circles of mitochondrial D N A called catenates.
Hopefully, something will be gleaned from this depressingly uncertain story. If caffeine is exerting a mutagenic effect by inhibiting repair enzymes, it should be possible to investigate this question as easily in mammalian systems as in bacterial ones. In fact, one such study has recently been reported in which human tissue culture cells (153) were used and their ability to repair the genetic damage produced by UV irradiation was monitored. A quantity of caffeine (sufficient to reduce their survival to UV irradiation) was added to the culture medium immediately following the exposure of such cells to UV light; however, no change in repair or the rate of repair was noted.
Perhaps, though evidence is lacking, all carcinogenic substances would be mutagenic were the active metabolite used and tested in the appropriate system. Where chemical intermediates and metabolic products can be disregarded, the results are in favor of the mutation theory of carcinogenesis, namely that the types of radiation which induce cancer are also very effective mutagens (176-178). In further support of the idea that direct genomal effects are involved and probably instrumental in the induction or initiation of carcinogenesis are the findings of Cleaver (179) who demonstrated that patients suffering from Xeroderma pigmentosum lack the ability to repair genetic damage produced by exposure to ultraviolet light.
Chemical Mutagens: Environmental Effects on Biological Systems by L Fishbein