By Torbem Bergman, J. A. Schufle (auth.), Torbern Bergman (eds.)
Torbern Bergman was once one of many maximum chemists of the 18th century. He edited this number of lectures in chemistry by way of H.T. Scheffer and released it in 1775. It was once most likely the 1st booklet designed for use as a textbook for collage periods in chemistry. Bergman awarded the 1st of his successively more desirable Tables of optionally available points of interest during this publication, a desk of the chemical parts which used to be one of many earliest makes an attempt to provide the entire chemical components and their homes in one desk. This desk preceded the fashionable periodic desk of the weather via approximately a century. it truly is of foundation of this desk that Bergman is taken into account to be the daddy of actual chemistry.
one of many many discoveries defined during this ebook is Scheffer's `Pelican Experiment'. which disproved the transmutation of parts, and preceded through twenty years the same test performed through Antoine Lavoisier.
This e-book might be of curiosity to historians of technological know-how and chemists specifically. Scientists in most cases and educators may also be to learn this publication. it may be used as extra analyzing in heritage classes.
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Extra info for Chemical Lectures of H.T. Scheffer
On the bottom o£ the retort a salt is sometimes £ound a£ter the boiling o££, which can be nothing else than mineral alkali now changed to Glauber's Salt probably containing water, which is used £or vitriolcement, in case no £lintstone, which is usually used, is to be had. Note. If the above-mentioned salt in the residue, Glauber's [Salt], which consists of mineral alkali combined with vitriol, is produced, it should not be volatile in fire because it cannot go over like the acid in the first distillation because it does not have such volatility; and more than likely it comes from decomposition of the glass and probably is mixed with flintstone, since we know that heavy boiling of strong acid in alkaline glass sometimes attacks the glass and the flint dissolved therefrom is deposited as a fine powder.
When something produces a deposit after the solution which dissolves the solute is formed, and something is precipitated, deposited or thrown down, the former is called the precipitant, to distinguish it from the precipitate or deposit, and the process itself is called precipitation or deposition. The whole process is based principally upon attraction and its varying degrees. Note 2. In general, salts are defined in a related way, unless they are not solids, in which case a definition seems superfluous; although where particles of pure acids are already solid FIRST SECTION, CHAPTER I, Salts In General themselves, then they still have a strong attraction for water, which they do not have (at least not all of them) for the other, the more liquid substance.
Heating is another means by which solution is brought about, partly by expansion of the substance and [consequent] enlarging of the pores, so that water penetrates better and reaches more surface, and partly by producing greater fluidity in the solvent, the performance of which is increased by different degrees of heat. , 100 degrees is the highest temperature that we expect water to reach, and generally is used for insoluble substances; and of those which are not 2 FIRST SECTION, CHAPTER I, Salts In General dissolved by this, still others can be further affected by heat, if the vessel is completely sealed.
Chemical Lectures of H.T. Scheffer by Torbem Bergman, J. A. Schufle (auth.), Torbern Bergman (eds.)