By Moulijn, Jacob A.; Leeuwen, P. W. N. M. van; Santen, R. A. van

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The catalysts used became poisoned by small amounts of impurities; in particular the lead compounds present in high octane gasoline were detrimental. Processes which produce high octane number compounds were therefore stimulated. First, cracking and reforming increased in importance. g. the production of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether). 3 SUMMARY The discussion of the history of catalysis in this chapter has been limited to the major events, so many interesting developments could not be mentioned.

This work resulted in 1960 in a process based on CoI2 operating at 700 bar and 250°C. Corrosion problems were overcome by applying Hastelloy C. In 1968 Monsanto reported a chemically related process based on rhodium iodide complexes. Due to its high reaction rates, high selectivity and different kinetics, the process differs substantially from the cobalt process. Commercialization was achieved in 1970. Operating conditions are remarkably mild: 30 bar, 180°C. 9 Polymerization The first polymerizationswere free radical reactions.

38 2 -CATALYTIC PROCESSES IN INDUSTRY the liquid from the centrifugation stage may contain dissolved atactic polypropylene which is collected by removal of the solvent with steam. The isotactic product from the centrifugation is dried and the solvent is recycled after thorough drying. In this process the catalyst concentrations are low and no catalyst removal (’de-ashing’) is needed. The fluffy powder is very sensitive to oxidation and a stabilizationpackage is added to the product before it is exposed to air.

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Catalysis An Integrated Approach to Homogenous Heterogenous and Industrial Catalysis by Moulijn, Jacob A.; Leeuwen, P. W. N. M. van; Santen, R. A. van


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