By Keogh R.H., Cox D.R.

ISBN-10: 1107019567

ISBN-13: 9781107019560

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Vp have independent Poisson distributions with means γ0 , . . , γp then two linear functions ck log Vk , k dk log Vk k have an asymptotic bivariate normal distribution with means ck log γk , k dk log γk k and asymptotic variances and covariance ck2 /Vk , dk2 /Vk , k k ck dk /Vk . 21) k Result 3. Similarly, the asymptotic covariance between a linear combination k ck log Vk and a linear combination of the Vk themselves, say ck dk . Therefore if k ck log Vk is a contrast, that is, if k dk Vk , is k ck = 0 then asymptotically ck log Vk , cov k Vk = 0.

In this situation the issues discussed above are largely avoided. Many studies, whether prospective or retrospective, suffer potential bias due to errors of measurement. In a range of settings, the exposures of interest are subject to measurement error. The retrospective collection of exposure information in some case-control studies leads to greater potential for differential errors in the measurements, that is, errors that differ according to case or control status. This possible bias may be more important than random errors.

Lilienfeld and Lilienfeld (1979) and Paneth et al. (2002a, b) have given histories of the use of case-control studies. 98mm 978 1 107 01956 0 October 7, 2013 2 The simplest situation • The cornerstone of the analysis of case-control studies is that the ratio of the odds of a binary outcome Y given exposure X = 1 and that given X = 0 is the same as the ratio of the odds where the roles of Y and X are reversed. This result means that prospective odds ratios can be estimated from retrospective case-control data.

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Case-Control Studies by Keogh R.H., Cox D.R.

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