By Lance L. Simpson

ISBN-10: 0126444455

ISBN-13: 9780126444452

ISBN-10: 0323141609

ISBN-13: 9780323141604

Botulinum Neurotoxin and Tetanus Toxin

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To determine whether the continued participation of the phage was necessary to maintain toxigenicity, bacteria reinfected with the TOX + phage were again cured of their prophage by culturing them in TYG broth (trypticase, yeast extract, glucose) containing Acridine Orange or antiserum prepared against the specific phage and plated on TYG agar. Isolates that continued to produce Cx neurotoxin also continued to carry the TOX + phage and were immune to infection. On the other hand, the nontoxigenic isolates had lost their immunity and were susceptible to infection.

Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 44, 53-54. M. (1980). The susceptibility of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) to Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin. Jpn. J. Med. Sei. 33, 81-86. , and Garmise, L. (1961). Phenotype alterations associated with the bacteriophage carrier state of Shigella dysenteriae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 24, 355-367. C. (1980). Plasmid-associated toxigenicity in Clostridium tetani. J. Infect. Dis. 142, 623. , Hardegree, M . P. (1981). Genetics of virulence plasmids of Clostridium tetani.

H. Habig of Eisel et al. , 1986). Attempts by Hara et al. (1977) to transfer toxigenicity from a toxigenic parent to a nontoxigenic recipient by mixed culture have been unsuccessful. However, Lederberg (1954) points out that San Felice in 1893 reported that nonpathogenic "pseudotetanus" bacilli were able to regain the ability to produce toxin following growth in culture medium from toxigenic tetanus organisms. Neither reversion from nontoxigenic to toxigenic organisms nor integration of the toxin gene into chromosomal DNA have been reported.

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Botulinum Neurotoxin and Tetanus Toxin by Lance L. Simpson


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