By Stephen W. Looney
Univ. of Louisville, KY. Applies biostatistics to the learn of genetics and the explanations and therapy of illness. Covers fresh advancements in snapshot quantitation, microarrays, and proteomics. Discusses using facts administration software program. comprises quite a few facts units and software program techniques.
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Extra resources for Biostatistical methods
The formula for an odds is, therefore, of the form P divided by 1ϪP, where P denotes the probability of the event of interest. Presentation: VII. 75, or one-third. 75 3 An odds of one-third can be interpreted to mean that the probability of the event occurring is one-third the probability of the event not occurring. Alternatively, we can state that the odds are 3 to 1 that the event will not happen. 1 ← event occurs 3 ← event does not occur 3 to 1 event will not happen The expression P(X) divided by 1ϪP(X) has essentially the same interpretation as P over 1ϪP, which ignores X.
That is, an adjusted odds ratio can be obtained by exponentiating the coefficient of a (0, 1) variable in the model. In our example, that variable is CAT, and the other two variables, AGE and ECG, are the ones for which we adjusted. adjusted Xi(0, 1): adj. ROR = e␤i controlling for other X’s EXAMPLE logit P( X) = α + β1CAT + β2 AGE + β3 ECG adjusted ECG (0, 1): adj. ROR = e␤3 controlling for CAT and AGE SUMMARY X i is (0, 1) : ROR = eβ i General OR formula : k ROR = e i=∑1 β i ( X1i − X 0 i ) More generally, if the variable of interest is Xi, a (0, 1) variable, then e to the ␤i, where ␤i is the coefficient of Xi, gives an adjusted odds ratio involving the effect of Xi adjusted or controlling for the remaining X variables in the model.
26. Again assuming a follow-up study, compute the estimated risk for a 40year-old male nonsmoker with CHOL=200 and OCC=1. ) 27. Compute and interpret the estimated risk ratio that compares the risk of a 40-year-old male smoker to a 40-year-old male nonsmoker, both of whom have CHOL=200 and OCC=1. 28. Would the risk ratio computation of Question 27 have been appropriate if the study design had been either cross-sectional or case-control? Explain. 29. Compute and interpret the estimated odds ratio for the effect of SMK controlling for AGE, SEX, CHOL, and OCC.
Biostatistical methods by Stephen W. Looney