By Kiyohiko Sugano
A accomplished advent to utilizing modeling and simulation courses in drug discovery and development
Biopharmaceutical modeling has turn into critical to the layout and improvement of recent medications. Influencing key features of the advance method, together with drug substance layout, formula layout, and toxicological publicity evaluate, biopharmaceutical modeling is now noticeable because the linchpin to a drug's destiny luck. And whereas there are many commercially to be had software program courses for drug modeling, there has now not been a unmarried source guiding pharmaceutical execs to the particular instruments and practices had to layout and attempt secure drugs.
A advisor to the fundamentals of modeling and simulation courses, Biopharmaceutics Modeling and Simulations bargains pharmaceutical scientists the keys to knowing how they paintings and are utilized in developing medicinal drugs with wanted medicinal houses. starting with a spotlight at the oral absorption of substances, the e-book discusses:
- The vital dogma of oral drug absorption (the interaction of dissolution, solubility, and permeability of a drug), which types the root of the biopharmaceutical class approach (BCS)
- The suggestion of drug concentration
- How to simulate key drug absorption processes
- The physiological and drug estate info used for biopharmaceutical modeling
- Reliable practices for reporting results
With over 2 hundred figures and illustrations and a peerless exam of the entire key facets of drug research?including operating and examining types, validation, and compound and formula selection?this reference seamlessly brings jointly the confirmed sensible methods necessary to constructing the secure and potent medicinal drugs of tomorrow.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–9):
Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework I: Solubility (pages 10–32):
Chapter three Theoretical Framework II: Dissolution (pages 33–63):
Chapter four Theoretical Framework III: organic Membrane Permeation (pages 64–121):
Chapter five Theoretical Framework IV: Gastrointestinal Transit types and Integration (pages 122–159):
Chapter 6 body structure of Gastrointestinal Tract and different management websites in people and Animals (pages 160–205):
Chapter 7 Drug Parameters (pages 206–265):
Chapter eight Validation of Mechanistic versions (pages 266–321):
Chapter nine Bioequivalence and Biopharmaceutical category method (pages 322–339):
Chapter 10 Dose and Particle measurement Dependency (pages 340–346):
Chapter eleven permitting Formulations (pages 347–378):
Chapter 12 nutrition impression (pages 379–411):
Chapter thirteen Biopharmaceutical Modeling for Miscellaneous situations (pages 412–429):
Chapter 14 Intestinal Transporters (pages 430–451):
Chapter 15 method in Drug Discovery and improvement (pages 452–458):
Chapter sixteen Epistemology of Biopharmaceutical Modeling and stable Simulation perform (pages 459–463):
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Additional resources for Biopharmaceutics Modeling and Simulations: Theory, Practice, Methods, and Applications
37) where pHmax is the pH of the maximum solubility, the system changes from the pH-controlled region to the common-ion-effect-controlled region. Similar equation can be derived for acid drugs. In the pH-controlled region (acid: pH < pHmax , base: pH > pHmax ), the slope of the logarithmic pH–solubility plot is 1. Therefore, one unit shift of pH or pKa results in 10-fold change in solubility. The maximum solubility of the pH–equilibrium solubility proﬁle is limited by the solubility product. In the common-ion-effect-controlled region, the equilibrium solubility of a drug depends largely on the concentration of the counterions (common ion effect) but less on the pH (concentration of H3 O+ ).
19) EQUILIBRIUM SOLUBILITY Deﬁnition of Equilibrium Solubility The solubility of a drug is deﬁned based on the equilibrium state between the dissolved drug molecules and the undissolved solid drug molecules (Figs. 1 for detailed deﬁnitions of solubility. 7 (a) Complete and (b) incomplete dissolution of a drug in a ﬂuid. 8 Detachment of a molecule from the solid surface and concentration gradient in the diffusion layer. energy/mole) is equal to that in the ﬂuid. When we look at the solid surface at a molecular level, there is a dynamic equilibrium determined by the balance of detaching and attaching rates (Fig.
A. (2010). A modiﬁed physiological BCS for prediction of intestinal absorption in drug discovery. Mol. , 7(5), 1478–1487. 17. , Olsson, U. (2006). Amorphous drug nanosuspensions. 2. Experimental determination of bulk monomer concentrations. Langmuir, 22, 911–916. 18. , Olsson, U. (2008). Nucleation and crystal growth in supersaturated solutions of a model drug. J. , 325, 404–413. 19. S. (1994). A simple “back of the envelope” method for estimating the densities and molecular volumes of liquids and solids.
Biopharmaceutics Modeling and Simulations: Theory, Practice, Methods, and Applications by Kiyohiko Sugano