By Ado Jorio
This ebook covers the advance of biotechnology in line with carbon nanostructures, with a spotlight on nanotubes, addressing additionally fullerenes and amorphous carbons. The booklet is split into 7 chapters, addressing tissue engineering, genetic engineering and remedy, in addition to the environmental and health and wellbeing affects of carbon nanostructures.
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Additional info for Bioengineering Applications of Carbon Nanostructures
Reproduced from Ladeira et al. with permission from Nanotechnology  As shown in Fig. 5, RyR II staining and distribution throught the cells was not altered in cardiomyocytes exposed to InsP3R-II siRNA:CNT complex. In gene knocking down experiments, CNT toxicity is a prime concern. In order to assess whether CNTs could alter cardiomyocyte viability in vitro we used a fluorescence-based live/dead assay that indicates the proportion of live and dead cells. 050 mg/mL). 050 mg/mL) does not alter the proportion of live/dead cells when compared with untreated cells.
A very useful property of CNTs is their capability to penetrate hard-to-transfect cells, such as cardiac cells, as ﬁrst demonstrated by Krajcik et al. . In this work, the authors used SWCNTs functionalized with hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium)chloride (PDDA). These functionalized fSWCNTs were then complexed non-covalently with negatively charged siRNA directed to ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) and used in a primary culture of cardiomyocytes. ERK is a serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase family of proteins, which is activated in response to numerous stimuli such as growth factors, hormones among others and is involved in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways in cardiac cells .
In both cases, it was observed a speciﬁc inhibition of HIF-1α activity, demonstrating the potential for using siRNA:SWCNTs complex in vivo as a therapeutic approach for cancer. For the use of SWCNTs in biomedical application, the study of pharmacokinetics of CNTs is very important. Cherukuri et al.  performed an evaluation of pharmacokinetics of SWCNTs in rabbits intravenously administered with pristine SWCNTs dispersed in a solution of surfactant Pluronic. Blood sera were analyzed by near-infrared (IR) fluorescence spectroscopy and SWCNT blood elimination kinetics was measured.
Bioengineering Applications of Carbon Nanostructures by Ado Jorio