By Y. C. Fung

ISBN-10: 1475738846

ISBN-13: 9781475738841

ISBN-10: 1475738862

ISBN-13: 9781475738865

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2) By differentiation, we have dL dL1 dn = - - +dt dt dt' - (3) which is a basic kinematic relation connecting the rate of muscle length change with the rate at which the actin -myosin overlap changes, and the velocity of exten sion of the series element. Experimental data on resting heart muscles show that (Pinto and Fung, 1973) dP dA. = rx(P + f3) (4) or (5) where ), is the stretch ratio of the muscle (measured from the state of zero tension in resting state), «, f3 are material constants. c is an integration constant.

UJ a: RESTING P-V RE LATION ::> (J) (J) UJ a: a.. 4: 5 Relationship between the " isovolumic pressure line" and the cardiac cycle. The isovolumic pressure line represents the capacity of the ventricle to develop pressure at each initial end-dia stolic volume if it were not allowed to eject blood . The three ejection cycles illustrated represent cardiac contractions at different initial enddiastolic volumes and aorti c pressures. length of the muscle fibers. Indeed, shape change of the ventricles in the isovolumic contraction period , as shown in Fig.

The Operation of the Aortic Valve An aortic valve with the sinus of Valsalva behind it is sketched in Fig. 5 :4. According to model experiments by Bellhouse and Bellhouse (1969, 1972) and Bellhouse and Talbot (1969), the flow issuing from the ventricle immediately upon opening of the valve at the inception of systole is split into two streams at each valve cusp, as shown in the figure. Part of the flow is directed into the sinus behind the valve cusp, where it forms a vortical flow before re-emerging, out of the plane of the figure, to rejoin the main stream in the ascending aorta.

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Biodynamics: Circulation by Y. C. Fung

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