By Carole Rossi
Over the prior twenty years, the fast improvement of nanochemistry and nanotechnology has allowed the synthesis of assorted fabrics and oxides within the kind of nanopowders making it attainable to supply new full of life compositions and nanomaterials.
This booklet has a bottom-up constitution, from nanomaterials synthesis to the applying fields. ranging from aluminum nanoparticles synthesis for gas software, it proposes an in depth state-of-the artwork of different tools of coaching of aluminum-based reactive nanomaterials. It describes the concepts constructed for his or her characterization and, whilst to be had, an outline of the basic mechanisms answerable for their ignition and combustion. This publication additionally provides the probabilities and obstacles of alternative vigorous nanomaterials and similar buildings in addition to the research in their chemical and thermal homes. the entire is rounded off with a glance on the performances of reactive fabrics by way of warmth of response and reactivity commonly characterised because the self-sustained combustion pace. The ebook finally ends up with an outline of present reactive nanomaterials functions underlying the promising integration of aluminum-based reactive nanomaterial into micro electromechanical systems.
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Additional resources for Al-based Energetic Nano Materials: Design, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications
The use of nanoparticles allows for energy release closer to the fuel surface, thus increasing the energy feedback rate to the surface and the regression rate of the fuel. Chiaverini et al. [CHI 97a, RIS 03] used a twodimensional motor to study the effects of various weight percentages of ALEX®-type of aluminum nanoparticles (4%, 12% and 20%) in HTPB-based solid fuels. The addition of 20% ALEX® enhanced mass burning rates up to 70% in comparison to pure HTPB fuel formulations. Risha et al. [RIS 03] evaluated the addition of various Al nanoparticles in a long-grain center perforated hybrid rocket motor.
Ivanov et al. [IVA 94, IVA 00] first investigated Al nanopowders in a mixture of water in the presence of polyacrylamide (3%) as a thickening agent. The particle diameter ranged from 30 to 100 nm. 0. The mixture did not ignite in the absence of the polyacrylamide thickening agent. The mixture was filled into 10 mm tubes and ignited with an electrical coil inside a vessel maintained at constant pressure with argon as the atmospheric gas. 5 cm/s. Shafirovich et al. [SHA 06] investigated the combustion behavior of 80 nm Al in water mixtures also with a polyacrylamide gelling agent.
Diffusion based on phase transformation processes Recent research on aluminum particle ignition has proposed that the oxidation is controlled by non-constant diffusion processes of oxygen and aluminum through the surface oxide coating. Importantly, it is assumed that the diffusion is critically affected by polymorphic phase changes occurring during heating. Trunov et al. 2. 2. Density of different alumina polymorphs The overall phase transformation process can be explained as follows. After the first oxidation step (formation of a thin amorphous oxide), the thickness of the natural amorphous alumina layer increases slowly.
Al-based Energetic Nano Materials: Design, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications by Carole Rossi