By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

ISBN-10: 0123813433

ISBN-13: 9780123813435

Semiconductors and Semimetals has exclusive itself during the cautious number of recognized authors, editors, and participants. initially well known because the ''Willardson and Beer'' sequence, it has succeeded in publishing a number of landmark volumes and chapters. The sequence publishes well timed, hugely appropriate volumes meant for long term effect and reflecting the really interdisciplinary nature of the sector. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals were and should remain of significant curiosity to physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and machine engineers in academia, medical laboratories and smooth undefined. This quantity is the second of a collection of seven concerning photovoltaics.

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1995). Since, under steadystate injection condition, the majority carrier capture rate exponentially depends on the barrier height, this barrier height and the captured charge at the defect reduce logarithmically with increasing minority carrier concentration. This means that, in contrast to SRH-type centers, the saturation of the recombination of extended defects may occur slowly, extending over many orders of magnitude of carrier concentration. According to Eqs. 9), any increase of the effective lifetime leads to a reduction of J 01.

While, in this scaling range, the reverse current of the virgin cell and that of the cell scratched at a load of 6 g (where the scratch did not penetrate the p–n junction yet) are negligibly small, the reverse current increases dramatically if the scratch penetrates the junction (loads of 9 and 27 g). This shows that scratching not only generates a strong J 02 contribution, as shown in Fig. 15 (A) Reverse characteristics of the diamond-scratched cells of Fig. , 2006a), (D) DLIT image of another monocrystalline cell taken at À5 V, by courtesy of Springer.

In a typical module, all 60 cells are series-arranged in typically three strings, which are each bridged by a bypass diode. In a solar system, many of these modules are series connected. Then all series-connected strings behave just like the single cells in one string do. Note that the current through all cells (resp. strings) is the same, since they are all series connected. However, the potentials between the cells and strings are floating, only the sum of all single voltages equals the applied voltage.

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Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 2 by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

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