By Yongxiang Lu
A historical past of chinese language technological know-how and Technology (Volumes 1, 2 & three) provides forty four person lectures, starting with historical chinese language technology and know-how within the technique of Human Civilizations and an outline of chinese language technological know-how and know-how, and carrying on with with in-depth discussions of numerous concerns within the heritage of technology and the Needham Puzzle, interspersed with themes on Astronomy, mathematics, Agriculture and drugs, The 4 nice innovations, and numerous technological parts heavily regarding garments, foodstuff, defend and transportation.
This booklet is the main authoritative paintings at the historical past of chinese language technological know-how and expertise. it's the Winner of the China publication Award, the Shanghai publication Award (1st prize), and the Classical China foreign Publishing undertaking (GAPP, basic management of Press and ebook of China) and gives a necessary source for educational researchers and non-experts alike.
It originated with a sequence of forty four lectures awarded to most sensible chinese language leaders, which obtained very optimistic suggestions. Written via most sensible chinese language students of their respective fields from the Institute for the historical past of common Sciences, chinese language Academy of Sciences and plenty of different revered chinese language firms, the ebook is meant for scientists, researchers and postgraduate scholars operating within the heritage of technological know-how, philosophy of technology and expertise, and similar disciplines. Yongxiang Lu is a professor, former president and member of the chinese language Academy of Sciences (CAS) and chinese language Academy of Engineering (CAE), and vice president of the nationwide Congress of China.
Read or Download A History of Chinese Science and Technology: Volume 2 PDF
Best history & philosophy books
This choice of essays examines the ways that disputes and controversies in regards to the software of medical wisdom are resolved. 4 concrete examples of public controversy are thought of intimately: the efficacy of Laetrile, the type of homosexuality as a affliction, the surroundings of protection criteria within the office, and the application of nuclear power as a resource of energy.
A century and a part earlier than the trendy info know-how revolution, machinists within the jap usa created the nation's first excessive know-how industries. In iron foundries and steam-engine works, locomotive works, computer and power outlets, textile-machinery agencies, and firearms brands, those imaginitive employees pioneered the perform of dispersing technological services via groups of perform.
The elemental texts of the good classical interval in sleek good judgment, a few of them
never sooner than on hand in English translation, are right here amassed jointly for the
first time. smooth common sense, heralded by means of Leibniz, could be acknowledged to were initiated
by Boole, De Morgan, and Jevons, however it was once the e-book in 1879 of Gottlob
Frege's Begriffsschrift that opened a very good epoch within the background of common sense by means of
presenting, in full-fledged shape, the propositional calculus and quantification
Frege's ebook, translated in its entirety, starts off the current quantity. The emergence
of new fields, set thought and foundations of arithmetic, at the borders of
logic, arithmetic, and philosophy, is depicted by way of the texts that persist with. Peano
and Dedekind illustrate the rage that ended in Principia Mathematica. Burali-Forti,
Cantor, Russell, Richard, and Konig mark the looks of the fashionable paradoxes.
Hilbert, Russell, and Zermelo exhibit a variety of methods of overcoming those paradoxes and
initiate, respectively, evidence concept, the speculation of sorts, and axiomatic set conception.
Skolem generalizes Lowenheim's theorem, and heand Fraenkel amend Zermelo's
axiomatization of set concept, whereas von Neumann bargains a a bit various method.
The controversy among Hubert and Brouwer in the course of the twenties is gifted in papers
of theirs and in others through Weyl, Bernays, Ackermann, and Kolmogorov. the amount
concludes with papers through Herbrand and via Godel, together with the latter's recognized
Of the forty-five contributions right here gathered all yet 5 are provided in extenso.
Those no longer initially written in English were translated with exemplary care and
exactness; the translators are themselves mathematical logicians in addition to expert
interpreters of occasionally imprecise texts. each one paper is brought by way of a notice that units
it in point of view, explains its significance, and issues out problems in
interpretation. Editorial reviews and footnotes are interpolated the place wanted, and
an large bibliography is integrated.
- Science in History, Volume 3: The Natural Sciences in Our Time
- Mathematics for Modeling and Scientific Computing
- Seminar on Deformations
- Evolution and Transitions in Complexity: The Science of Hierarchical Organization in Nature
- From natural philosophy to the sciences : writing the history of nineteenth-century science
- Nominalistic Systems
Extra resources for A History of Chinese Science and Technology: Volume 2
4 Pathogenic Theory The theory on causes of disease in traditional Chinese medicine is very simple— generally speaking, there are three types of pathogenies: internal causes, external causes, and non-endo-non-exogenous causes. The so-called external factors believes that there are six Qi’s between heaven and earth, namely wind, cold, heat, wet, dryness, and fire, and when one of them becomes too strong or appears where it is not supposed to, “excess” (evil) will occur. These evil Qi will invade the human body, causing “exogenous” diseases.
B Figure of the heart system. 18 The governor vessel, one of the eight extraordinary vessels, is located in the central line on the back of the human body acupoints” irrelevant to meridians or collaterals, or ashi acupoints denoted by the feeling of pains (that is, the places where pain is felt are acupoints). This theory is obviously derived from the integration of acupuncture therapy and channel theory. ” The channel theory is undoubtedly the most mysterious and most characteristic feature of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as the ancient knowledge of medicine attracting the widest attention from contemporary scientists.
Extraordinary fu viscera: brain, marrow, bone, channel, gall, and uterus (womb). Except for the “Sanjiao” Fu, the names of other organs are still in use, referring exactly to the same entities as modern anatomy. The only difference lies in the understanding of their functions—the ancient and modern understandings are different, so are Chinese and Western understandings. This is because the ancient names of organs originally came from actual observation. However, without the modern physiological and biochemical knowledge, it is impossible to establish a correct understanding of their functions.
A History of Chinese Science and Technology: Volume 2 by Yongxiang Lu